IISc researchers show Hydrogen sulphide gas suppresses HIV infection | India News – Times of India

BENGALURU: Researchers at IISc and its partners have found that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) plays an important role in HIV suppression because H2S gas has a direct effect on reducing the growth rate of the virus in the immune cells of infected HIV-infected people.
The results pave the way for more comprehensive antiretroviral therapy against HIV, researchers say. The team consisted of researchers from the Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology (MCB) and people from IISc’s Center for Infectious Diseases Research (CIDR) and the Medical College and Research Institute (BMCRI) in Bangalore.
The results were published in Elife Journal, IISC said in a statement. Noting that current state-of-the-art combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) is not a cure for HIV, researchers say it can only suppress the virus – it can go dormant.

“… Unfortunately, in some cases, patients are known to fail the cart even after fully adhering to the medication. Some of the negative effects are also associated with cartilage, such as the formation of toxic molecules causing ‘oxidative stress’ and impairing the function of the cell’s powerhouse mitochondria. These effects can contribute to inflammation and organ damage. Closing the cartilage is also not an option because the virus may reactivate, “the researchers said.
Scientists have recently begun exploring the beneficial effects of the presence of H2S in HIV-infected cells on both oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, says Amit Singh, Associate Professor, MCB / CIDR and related author. IISc added that in previous research, Singh’s lab developed a tool for measuring oxidative stress in HIV-infected cells.
“In that work, we have shown that the chemical agent (N-acetylcysteine) can suppress HIV reactivation from dormant infected cells. A German study later showed that N-acetylcysteine ​​partially works by releasing H2S molecules when we begin to examine its role, “Singh said.
Previous work from Singh’s lab also looked at the effects of oxidative stress resistance by an antioxidant nanozyme during HIV infection. “Since H2S also acts as an antioxidant molecule, we wanted to see if our previous insights could be translated to show the contribution of H2S to HIV infection,” Singh said.
Given that the role of H2S in HIV has not been explored before, researchers have set up experiments from scratch. Virendra Kumar Pal, the first author of the study, said, “New model system construction and validation are needed to study the effects of a gaseous molecule on HIV.”
He said the team began testing on established cell lines before moving to cells donated by HIV patients in 2019, adding that BMCRI collaborators and a group called Professor Annapurna Bacarnam at CIDR helped a lot.
“Detecting H2S inside cells was not an easy task. Since H2S cannot be detected using conventional biochemical techniques, we have used calorimetric and fluorometric techniques,” he recalls.
Researchers have studied the effects of H2S naturally on HIV-infected cells and have supplemented it with a chemical donor. “We have observed the direct effect of H2S on HIV reactivation and replication and all its other beneficial effects, such as maintenance of mitochondrial health and oxidative stress dissipation in cellular models. Our results indicate that HIV latency maintenance and reactivation are closely linked to H2S levels in infected cells, ”says Singh.
He added that it opens the door to supplement carts with H2S chemical donors so that HIV can be locked in a deeper delay, potentially improving the lives of millions of people infected with the virus. “Since H2S donors are already going through clinical trials for other diseases, they can be quickly re-used for HIV treatment,” he said.

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